What are Exosomes?
Increasing numbersof patients are familiar with stem cells, but exosomes are a new consideration. What are they? Exosomes are the microscopic “bags” of chemicals made by stem cells. Exosomes are the way that stem cells deliver all those beneficial chemicals. Stem cells vary in size depending on their activity and how they are measured, but are roughly 30 micrometers (microns) in diameter. Exosomes are roughly 30 nanometers in diameter,
about 1/1000 th the diameter of a stem cell. Stem cells move about and, because stem cells are attracted to the chemicals released by injured tissue, stem cells go to the sites on greatest injury. Because of their much smaller size, exosomes have an advantage in spreading through tissues and crossing the “blood-brain barrier.”
How Long does it Take Exosomes to Work?
Because of the huge variety of chemicals within exosomes, there is a matching variety of processes “kick-started” by those different chemicals. Some process are rapid in onset and some take even months to peak. For example, the anti-inflammatory chemicals work immediately. Other chemicals ramp-up production of new cells and tissues, taking months for peak benefit.
What are all Those Chemicals in Exosomes?
It is worth considering the immense variety of metabolic processes and pathways affected by these important chemicals:
- BMP5 stimulates bone growth
- GDF15 regulates inflammation, apoptosis (programmed cell death), cell repair, growth
- OPG stimulates bone growth
- G-CSF stimulates the bone marrow to produce more stem cells and granulocytes (certain white blood cells that fight infection)
- SCF necessary for stem cell growth
- TGFß3 an anti-inflammatory protein that converts Inflammatory T-cells into anti-inflammatory Regulatory T-cells
- VEGF stimulates formation of new blood vessels
- VEGFR-2 receptor for VEGF
- ICAM-1 blocks inflammatory binding sites on white blood cells
- IL-1RA blocks the inflammatory cytokine IL-1
- IL-6 activates macrophages to remove damaging debris
- IL-10 the cytokine that signals conversion of inflammatory to anti-inflammatory T-cells
- MCP-1 attracts mononuclear cells to the repair site
- MIP-1 attracts mononuclear cells to the repair site
- PDGF-BB stimulates growth in healing tissues
- TIMP1 blocks degradation of healing cartilage
- TIMP2 blocks degradation of healing cartilage
- HGF is essential in wound healing and organ regeneration
- GDNF promotes survival of nerve cells
- BDNF promotes survival of nerve cells
- FGF potent growth factor
- TNFR1 inactivates TNFα, an inflammatory cytokine
- TNFR2 inactivates TNFα, an inflammatory cytokine
- Histone Deacetylation mRNA codes for histones (proteins that uncoil DNA allowing better gene transcription)
- GDF11 researched as an anti-aging factor
- GDF15 regulates inflammatory pathways, apoptosis, cell repair, and cell growth
- IGFBP1-6 binds, protects, and transports IGF-1 and IGF-2 growth factors
- OPG one of the Tumor Necrosis Factor receptors
- TGF-ß1 control of cell growth, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and apoptosis
- BMP4 involved in bone, cartilage, and muscle development and fracture repair
- BMP7 helps mesenchymal cells become bone and cartilage
- microRNA regulates gene expression
Edgar Suter, MD
Edgar Suter, MD, is the Medical Director and Quality Assurance Officer at Vibrant Health Care, a premier regenerative medicine practice in Scottsdale, Arizona. Dr. Suter has exceptional knowledge and expertise in medicine, with years of experience in primary care, emergency medicine, nuclear medicine, radiology, and neuroscience.
Dr. Suter completed his undergraduate education at Santa Clara University in Santa Clara, California. He obtained his medical degree from the University of California School of Medicine in Davis, California, and Creighton University School of Medicine in Omaha, Nebraska. Dr. Suter also studied neurological disorders at the University of California Los Angeles Brain Research Institute.
He has over 35 years of experience in medicine, making Dr. Suter one of the most well-rounded, qualified regenerative medicine physicians. He and his Vibrant Health Care team bring cutting-edge technology, advanced treatments, and minimally invasive therapies to patients.